Parkinsons Disease and CBD

Nerves

"The management of psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been considered a great challenge for clinicians and there is a need for new pharmacological intervention. Previously an antipsychotic and neuroprotective effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) has been suggested. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to directly evaluate for the first time, the efficacy, tolerability and safety of CBD on PD patients with psychotic symptoms. This was an open-label pilot study. Six consecutive outpatients (four men and two women) with the diagnosis of PD and who had psychosis for at least 3 months were selected for the study. All patients received CBD in flexible dose (started with an oral dose of 150 mg/day) for 4 weeks, in addition to their usual therapy. The psychotic symptoms evaluated by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Parkinson Psychosis Questionnaire showed a significant decrease under CBD treatment. CBD did not worsen the motor function and decreased the total scores of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. No adverse effect was observed during the treatment. These preliminary data suggest that CBD may be effective, safe and well tolerated for the treatment of the psychosis in PD."

Excerpt from the paper written by the Department of Neuropsychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

"Cannabidiol (CBD) is among the major secondary metabolites of Cannabis devoid of the delta-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is a resorcinol-based compound with a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in numerous pathological conditions. CBD neuroprotection is due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities and the modulation of a large number of brain biological targets (receptors, channels) involved in the development and maintenance of neurodegenerative diseases."

Excerpt from the paper written by Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

"We have recently demonstrated that two plant-derived cannabinoids, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD), are neuroprotective in an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD), presumably because of their antioxidant properties. To further explore this issue, we examined the neuroprotective effects of a series of cannabinoid-based compounds, with more selectivity for different elements of the cannabinoid signalling system, in rats with unilateral lesions of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons caused by local application of 6-hydroxydopamine. We used the CB1 receptor agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA), the CB2 receptor agonist HU-308, the non-selective agonist WIN55,212-2, and the inhibitors of the endocannabinoid inactivation AM404 and UCM707, all of them administered i.p. Daily administration of ACEA or WIN55,212-2 did not reverse 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine (DA) depletion in the lesioned side, whereas HU-308 produced a small recovery that supports a possible involvement of CB2 but not CB1 receptors. AM404 produced a marked recovery of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced DA depletion and tyrosine hydroxylase deficit in the lesioned side. Possibly, this is caused by the antioxidant properties of AM404, which are derived from the presence of a phenolic group in its structure, rather than by the capability of AM404 to block the endocannabinoid transporter, because UCM707, another transporter inhibitor devoid of antioxidant properties, did not produce the same effect. None of these effects were observed in non-lesioned contralateral structures. We also examined the timing for the effect of CBD to provide neuroprotection in this rat model of PD. We found that CBD, as expected, was able to recover 6-hydroxydopamine-induced DA depletion when it was administered immediately after the lesion, but it failed to do that when the treatment started 1 week later. In addition, the effect of CBD implied an upregulation of mRNA levels for Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, a key enzyme in endogenous defenses against oxidative stress. In summary, our results indicate that those cannabinoids having antioxidant cannabinoid receptor-independent properties provide neuroprotection against the progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons occurring in PD. In addition, the activation of CB2 (but not CB1) receptors, or other additional mechanisms, might also contribute to some extent to the potential of cannabinoids in this disease."

Excerpt from the paper written by the Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular III, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid, Spain.

"Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa plant. REM sleepbehaviour disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the loss of muscle atonia during REM sleep associated with nightmares and active behaviour during dreaming. We have described the effects of CBD in RBD symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease."

Excerpt from the paper written by the Department of Neuroscience and Behavior, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil; INCT Translational Medicine (CNPq), São Paulo, Brazil.